Note: The Web version of this issue of The Roots Tracer contains all of 
the words and all of the non-decorative graphics of the original paper 
version, but does not preserve the original typographical formatting.




Livermore-Amador Genealogical Society
PO Box 901 Livermore, California 94551



Calendar of Events 	597
Welcome to New Members 	597
Obituary 	597
Genealogical Resources Available at the Livermore History Center 	598
Library News 	599
Computer News 	601
CD Corner 	603
Things to File 	603
Under the Genealogy Tree With Jolene 	604
Family History Center News 	605
Meet the Members
Linda TRUDEAU 	606
David WHISMAN 	607
Billy GREEN 	608
Anita ORBIZ 	609

Copyright Notice: No articles may be reproduced for profit or commercial 
gain without the express written consent of the authors, the editors, or 
the Livermore-Amador Genealogical Society.


Beverly Schell Ales
Anastasia Alexander
Carrie Alexander
G. E. "Robbie" Robinson
Harriett & George Anderson
Judy Person
Harry and Kip West

Addie Martz
Doug Mumma

	P. 0. Box 901, Livermore, CA 94551

President 	David ABRAHAMS 	
lst VP and Membership Chair 	Lori CODEY 	
2nd VP and Program Chair 	Katherine BRIDGMAN 	
		and Lucille KUSK0 	
Recording Secretary 	Mildred KIRKWOOD 	
Corresponding Secretary 	David CURRY 	
Business Manager 	Harold NORRIS 	
Roots Tracer Editors 	Jolene ABRAHAMS 	
		and	Regina SCHAEFER 	
Library Chair 	Judy PERSON 	
Publicity Chair 	John WALDEN 	
Livermore Cultural Arts Council Rep 	Leo VONGOTTFRIED	
Computer Interest Group 	Doug MUMMA 	
Historian 	David LINDSEY 	
Publications Chair 	"Robbie" Robinson 	

The Livermore-Amador Genealogical Society is exempt from Federal Income 
Tax under Section 501(c)(3) (literary and educational) of the Internal 
Revenue Code and California Taxation Code 237020.

The Roots Tracer is a quarterly publication with articles of interest to 
the genealogist. Members are encouraged to submit their "Profiles" as 
well as articles of general interest. Queries are free to members, $1.00 
to non-members.

The deadline for each quarterly is the 15th of June, September, December, 
and March. Send to:

Roots Tracer, P. 0. Box 901
Livermore, CA 94351

Any book presented to the Society will be reviewed in the quarterly along 
with the purchase price and address of the publisher.

Our Library is located in the Pleasanton Public Library building, 400 Old 
Bernal Ave., Pleasanton, CA.

Meetings are held on the 2nd Tuesday, monthly, 7:30 PM, at Congregation 
Beth Emek, 1866 College Ave., Livermore, CA.

Membership in LAGS is open to any individual, library, or society. Our 
fiscal year is January 1 through December 31. Membership includes a 
subscription to the quarterly Roots Tracer.

Publications                            Members  Non-Members   Postage

Surname Index (1994)                    $9.00    $14.00        $2.00
Livermore Cemeteries (1988)            $12.00    $17.00        $2.00
Pleasanton, Dublin Cemeteries (1990)    $8.00    $12.00        $2.00
Roots Tracer Index                      $3.00     $4.50        $1.50

The above publications are available on diskette (IBM or Mac) for the 
same price as the paper copies. When purchased with a book, they are half 

Send check or money order to:

Livermore-Amador Genealogical Society
P. 0. Box 901, Livermore, CA 94551

Individual        $12.00
Family            $18.00
Life             $125.00
Benefactor        $30.00
Patron            $60.00
Life (Couples)   $185.00

(From various sources)

APRIL 9 San Mateo Co. Gen Society "How to Use Persi" by Bette Kot, 7:30 
PM, Belmont Hall, 1365 Fifth Ave, Ampex Cafeteria, Belmont.

APRIL 19 National Archives Workshop "Westward Movement" by Barbara 
Marshall, Pacific Sierra Region, 1000 Commodore Dr. San Bruno, fee: 
$12/$15. Contact Rose Mary Kennedy, 415-876-9009.

APRIL 20 San Ramon Valley Gen Society with the Danville LDS will present 
a Family History Seminar. Call Colleen Justis 510-837-1844.

APRIL 27 San Mateo Co. Gen Society Seminar with Dr. G. Schweitzer. 
"Migration Routes and Settlement Patterns 1607-1890". "Tracing Your 
Ancestors Back Across the Atlantic" and "Gen. Research in North 
Carolina". Call 415-368-0742.

MAY 8-11 National Gen Society Conference, Nashville, TN. Write NGS, 
Nashville '96 Conference, 4527 17th Street N., Arlington, VA 22027-2399

MAY 14 L-AGS regular meeting, 7:30PM at Congregation Beth Emek, corner 
of College Ave. & South M Street, Livermore. For info (510-447-9386).

MAY 16 San Joaquin Gen Society "Your Own Family History" by Milt Grassell,
professional writer-publisher. Held at Humphrey's College.

MAY 18 Sonoma Co. Gen. Society "Breathing Life Into Your Ancestor" by 
Susan Simons. Rm 2204, Lark Hall, SRJC. E-mail

JUNE 1 Gen. & Hist. Council of Sacramento Valley Present "Tools to 
Build Your Family History" at the Sacramento City College Cafeteria, 
3835 Freeport Blvd, Sacramento, CA, 8:30AM - 4:30PM. Pre-registration 
$15 for members of Council or Alliance; $18 for non-members; $20 at 
door. Call Iris Carter Jones, 916-428-2245.

JUNE 11 L-AGS regular meeting, 7:30PM at Congregation Beth Emek, corner 
of College Ave. & South M Street, Livermore. For info 510-447-9386.

JUNE 22 Knowles/Knoles Centennial Reunion, Princeton, IN. For info 510-

JULY 9 L-AGS regular meeting, 7:30PM at Congregation Beth Emek, corner 
of College Ave. & South M Street, Livermore. For info 510-447-9386.

Welcome to New Members

Wayne and Valerie Barnes
Gayle Cain
Charles and Diane Cox
Roy Erickson
Clarence Gerald Groth
Garth and Rose Ludwig
Carol A. Tucker
David and Carol Whisman
Gerald "Gary" Bradley


Don Johnson, long-time member of L-AGS, passed away recently. Don was 
one of our most knowledgeable members and an avid history buff. Don's 
great sense of humor and outstanding stories and information will be 
sorely missed at the meetings.

B. S. Bunshah

The Livermore Heritage Guild's History Center, located in the Carnegie 
Building on Third Street between "J" and "K" Streets, has a wonderful 
collection of material to aid genealogists and family historians 
concerned with the early history of Livermore. The following is a 
current list of resources:

	These hand-written tax rolls are arranged in a rough alphabetical 
order by taxpayers. The History Guild has made a rearrangement of them 
by property location. However, the location identification does not 
correspond to the current Tax Assessor's parcel numbers.

	A. From The Livermore Echo Newspaper, Autumn 1887 through 1905. 
The microfilm of this paper is an incomplete file with many missing 
issues. The indexing is on-going, and will someday include 1906 through 
	B. From The Livermore Herald microfilms, July 1899 through July 
1957. Once again, some issues are missing from these films.
	C. From The Livermore Herald, 1970 to date. This is an on-going 
indexing project.

	An alphabetical (handwritten) listing of names appearing in The 
Livermore Enterprise, 1874 - 1876; The Livermore Herald, 1877 - 1898 (a 
very random collection of papers); and The Livermore Echo (only 1887 and 
part of 1888 are completed).

1899 through December 31, 1957.

1, 1970 through the current issues. This is an on-going index from hard 
copies of the three Valley newspapers: The Herald, The Independent and 
The Valley Times.

	A. Woods History of Alameda County, 1883.
	B. (Pen Pictures ...) A Memorial & Biographical History of 
Northern California. The Heritage Guild has photocopies of the entries 
covering the Livermore-Amador Valley from this very rare 1891 vanity 

	A. Dyer - owned a ranch to the east of Livermore.
	B. Cockerton - Altamont/Brushy Peak area.
	C. DeWelt - Tesla/Carnegie area circa 1905 - 1906.

It should be noted that due to increased demands placed upon the limited 
staff at the History Center, the Heritage Guild now charges $25.00 per 
hour (with a one hour minimum) for research performed by the staff. 
There is an additional charge of 10 cents/page for photo-copies and 
30 cents/page for prints from microfilms. Copies of photographs in the 
Heritage Guild collection are $6.50 for a 5 X 7 and $12.00 for an 8 X 10. 
The History Center is open to the public Wednesday through Sunday, 
September - May: 11:30 AM - 4:00 PM; June - August: 10:30 AM - 3:00 PM, 
major holidays excepted. There is no charge to researchers (other than 
for copies) for the use of the facilities.

NOTE: From the Livermore Heritage Guild's "Resources for Genealogists" 

Judy Person

We were fortunate to find several books on varied ethnic groups this 

Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 
1700, by Frederick Weis. 7th edition, 1995. This is the gift of Marston 
Watson, who spoke to our group and requested we use his honorarium to buy 
this book. It is revised and enlarged, and deals with mostly New England 
people. A fine addition to the library, for which we thank Mr. Watson.

Black Genealogy, by Charles L. Blockson. We've been searching for this 
for years, and glad it is reprinted. It was first published in 1977, 
after Roots and the Bi-Centennial had raised interest in genealogy, and 
remains unique. Almost a third of the text is a directory of research 

Robert Bartlett of the "Anne" and His Descendants for Four Generations, 
compiled by Robert S. Wakefield. General Society of Mayflower 
Descendants, 1995. Donated by Judy Person. Descendants of Richard 
Warren of the Mayflower.

Wills of the County of Essex (England) 1558-1565, Volume 1, by F.G. 
Emmison. This has been reprinted by the National Genealogical Society, 
and is full of information on the domestic life of the ordinary 
Elizabethans, as opposed to the gentry. Donated by Judy Person. The 
wills are reprinted and there is a complete index of personal names.

How to Document Victims and Locate Survivors of the Holocaust, by Gary 
Mokotoff. Avotaynu, Inc., 1995. The author of this poignant work was in 
charge of the National Register of Holocaust Survivors until it was made 
part of the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington, D.C. It is 
full of practical information and addresses of resources, and 
encouragement for families to tell the world about those who were 
murdered, as more than 250 of the author's relatives were.

How to Research American Indian Blood Lines, by Cecelia Carpenter. 
American Genealogical Lending Library, 1995. Basic sketch of how to get 

Mayflower Families through Five Generations, Volume 8, Family of Degory 
Priest. General Society of Mayflower Descendants, 1994. This rounds out 
our set with all the families that are completed to date.

Mayflower Increasings, 2d edition, by Susan Roser. Genealogical 
Publishing Company, 1995. Donated by Judy Person. A thorough study, 
with documentation, of three generations of twenty-seven of the Mayflower 
families. Includes the court record of my ancestor, John Billington, the 
first murderer in the colony (!), as well as evidence of the humanity of 
the others. By the way, I called to replace our defective copy and they 
ran downstairs to get the LAST copy of this book published in 1995! If 
you want to buy a book, buy it right away, because publishers are taxed 
on their inventory.

Our Italian Surnames, by Joseph Fucilla. Genealogical Publishing 
Company, reprint in 1993 of 1949 work. Given names, pet names, origin of 
Italian surnames, botanical-origin names, etc. Fully indexed.

Second Supplement to Torrey's New England Marriages Prior to 1700, by 
Melinda Lutz Sanborn. Genealogical Publishing Company, 1995. We own the 
original volume and the first supplement, so this completes the set. Mr. 
Torrey was a very methodical genealogist, and Mrs. Sanborn acknowledges 
her debt to the genealogists who discover and send her additions to these 

Surname Index to Sixty-five Volumes of Colonial and Revolutionary 
Pedigrees, by George Crowther III. National Genealogical Society, 1992. 
Originally published in 1964. The names are keyed to the works where 
they are found, and would be useful for people planning a trip to Sutro 
Library or Salt Lake City, if they suspect early American ancestors.

Swiss Genealogical Research, an introductory guide, by Paul Anthon 
Nielson. The Donning Company, 1979. Guidelines to this area are not 
easily found, especially in our collection.

Topical Index to National Genealogical Society Quarterly, Volumes 1-50, 
1912-1962. Compiled by Col. Carleton Edward Fisher, B.S. NGS, 1964. 
".names of all persons, families, topics and places which form the 
subjects of the articles."

Tracing Your Hispanic Heritage, by George R. Ryskamp. Hispanic Family 
History Research, 1984. We have a slim volume with good basics on this 
subject, and this very thorough volume, more than two inches thick, 
carries on for the serious researcher. 

Allen County Public Library needs help! The Historical Genealogy 
Department of the Allen County Public Library is asking for our help. 
They are beginning an aggressive collection plan for the western states. 
Their collection contains little published materials for California 
counties and are looking for record indexes, abstracts or other 
compilations that our societies or individual members may published. A 
few suggestions were: vital record indexes, cemetery transcriptions, 
business information, chuch or community histories, obituary abstracts, 
etc. They would be happy to accept this type of material as a donation 
to pay for having it copied or to purchase it outright (include 
publishers address and price.) Please keep them in mind when you do 
publishing in the future. Allen County Public Library, 900 Webster 
Street (P.O. Box 2270) Fort Wayne, IN 46801-2270, ATTN: Historical 
Genealogy Dept.

World Wide Web. Public access to the Internet, using the Netscape 
graphical interface which allows viewing of text and images, is available 
at Internet stations in the Fremont Main, Union City, Pleasanton and San 
Lorenzo Libraries. The graphical interface on these stations allows the 
library user to visit a wide variety of World Wide Web sites on the 
Internet. The service is free to the public and was funded by an 
Infopeople Federal and State Volunteers are available at several branches 
to assistnew Internet users in using the Infopeople stations.

Dial-In Access to the Library. Al E. Cat, the Library's on-line public 
access catalog, is now available 24 hours a day by dial-up access to any 
library user with a personal computer and a modem. The phone number for 
modem access is 510-794-7381. Terminal emulation should be VT100 and 
maximum baud rate 9600. When connected, press  to call up the 
menu. This feature allows a library user to save time by determining 
ahead of time what resources are available at the library, which branch 
owns them, and whether they are checked out or not. In addition, job 
searchers and other library users needing certain types of business 
information can do their research using Look Smart, described above.

Magazine Indexes and Articles. Al E. Cat now includes indexes and text 
of over 1200 magazines, plus the Health Reference Center of medical 
pamphlets and magazines. Many of the articles appear with their complete 
text; others have a summary. Library users can search by subjects or key 
words to locate articles. Experienced searchers can use a feature which 
limits searches by date, journal, or other criteria. The database for 
the magazine section of the catalog is updated weekly and the backfile 
extends to 1980, so very timely topics as well as topics over the past 
decade can be searched. The magazine indexes and articles feature of Al 
E. Cat is a powerful tool which easily locates information and cuts down 
on the time needed to research information.

Computer News
Doug Mumma
Meetings held 4th Thursdays, 7:00 p.m. at LDS Church on Mocho St.

Future Computer Interest Group Meetings

April 25	Ancestral File. Dean Lee will discuss how to submit your data 
to the LDS Ancestral File, make corrections to previous data that has 
been submitted and how to use the data. He will answer any question so 
come prepared to stump him. Dean will also provide an update regarding 
new acquisitions at the local Family History Center.

Viruses - They can happen to you!

The subject of this month's article is dear to my heart because that is 
exactly what happened to me. I recently purchased a new Pentium computer 
and had a system crash while I was transferring files from my old 
machine. It appeared as though the hard drive on the new machine died. 
Two days later a Dell technician appeared at my door to make repairs. 
Fortunately, the hard drive was OK, just the information about the hard 
drive got screwed up in CMOS. While the technician was there, he checked 
my machine for viruses. BOING! Up went a warning message that my new 
machine was infected with a virus called "Antiexe." The same was true for 
my old machine as well as my "loaner" computer. Numerous diskettes were 
also infected. I was nervous, scared, and embarrassed all at the same 
time. I knew better than to wait so long to recheck my machine for 
viruses, especially since I have been helping so many people with their 
machines. Fear swept over me wondering how deadly and destructive the 
virus might be. My next panic was how many people I had possibly infected 
since I have been helping numerous people recently. Was it possible for 
the programs on the BBS to also be infected? What about the computer 
diskettes I had created for LAGS. Were they infected? I quickly 
downloaded several shareware antivirus programs and tried to learn as 
much as possible about the "Antiexe" virus. In the process, I learned the 
following facts:

*	What is Antiexe Virus? This virus is a memory resident stealth 
infector of master boot records and diskette boot sectors. It was first 
encountered in January of 1995 and thought to have originated in Russia 
and is considered a common virus. It is sometimes referred to as CMOS4 or 

*	How did I get the Virus? This virus is only transmitted through the 
use of diskettes and cannot be "caught" from a program downloaded from 
a bulletin board system (BBS.) When a system is booted from a diskette 
infected with the Antiexe virus, the virus will infect the system memory 
as well as the system's hard disk master boot sector. The boot process 
from the floppy need not be successful for infection to occur. It 
probably means that my bootable "diagnostics" diskette became infected.

*	How does the Antiexe virus affect my computer? When the system is 
first "booted" from an infected diskette, this virus will install itself 
in memory. The total system and available free memory, as indicated by 
the DOS CHKDSK program, will have decreased by 1,024 bytes. This virus 
will also overwrite the system hard disk master boot sector. Once the 
virus is memory resident, it will infect non-write protected diskettes by 
infecting the diskette boot sector when the diskette is accessed.

This virus is destructive in one circumstance. If the user presses the 
key combination  and  while the virus is performing a disk 
access, the virus will overwrite the eight sectors on each head and track 
of the drive starting at sector four. In addition, it will target EXE 
files which are 200,256 bytes in length. If it finds such a file it will 
corrupt the files contents.

*	How do I clean this virus? Use an antivirus program such as McAfee's 
"VirusScan", Thompson's "Doctor", or Norton's antivirus program.

From this information, I felt much better, We checked the BBS and indeed, 
all the files were OK. I have checked most of the computers that I have 
worked on recently and most of them were clean and OK. In one incidence, 
I had borrowed a diskette and used it on my machine. When I returned it, 
it was infected, but it didn't infect my friend's computer. We quickly 
disinfected the diskette! All LAGS diskettes are OK.

So this brief excursion into the world of viruses has been a real wake-up 
call for me. While I had been careful to use an antivirus program in the 
past, I became complacent and removed it after several years of use. I 
also needed the space it was occupying on my machine and I didn't want it 
to use any of my machine's memory. That has all changed now. I have 
installed McAfee's VirusScan program on my new machine and it operates as 
a TSR program, which means that it is always on guard checking any new 
disk or program that is used. I tested it on an infected diskette and it 

What is a PC Virus? A PC virus is a software program that attaches itself 
to another program in computer memory or on a computer disk. Viruses may 
lie dormant, damage data, cause the computer to crash, or display 
messages. The primary goal of a virus is to propagate, not only within 
your system, but also by migrating to other systems.

Types of Virus Infectors. There are three types of virus infectors:

1.) File Infectors

2.) Boot Sector Infectors

3.) Multi-Partite Infectors

File infectors can only appear in executable files. They primarily infect 
*.COM and *.EXE files. They may also be found in *.DRV, *.DLL, *.BIN, 
*.OVL, *.386, or *.SYS files. This type of virus can only become active 
when the file is executed or run.

Method of Infection. File infectors occur by running an infected 
executable file.

A boot sector virus occurs by attempting to boot from a floppy diskette. 
The attempt need not be successful for an infection to occur. A result 
such as "non-system disk or disk error" is enough to allow the infector 
to enter the system.

Multi-partite infections can enter the system through either an 
executable file or a boot sector. In any case, both a file infection and 
a boot sector infection may result.

Cure of Infections.

To cure a virus infection, you need to start with a clean start-up 
diskette that is "bootable". For this reason, it is always recommended to 
make a "system" diskette for your computer. This is a diskette known to 
be uninfected, that contains the coded instructions from which the 
computer can be started. The system is then cold booted using the exact 
same version of DOS that resides in the hard drive. Other versions of DOS 
may be used, but problems are likely to occur. This is akin to 
sterilizing the operation theater. Finally, use the most current version 
of an antivirus program to clean the system.

Infection Prevention. These precaution will minimize the risk of a PC 
virus infection:

1)	Never boot your system from a floppy diskette

2)	Always antivirus scan new software before installation

3)	Antivirus scan all downloaded files

4)	Make use of a terminate-and stay resident (TSR) antivirus program. 
You can buy one at any computer store such as Egghead, Fry's, Computer 
City, or Office Depot.

Robbie Robinson

	This column will be an attempt to keep you informed on CDs that are 
available for use by the genealogist. I will try to keep you up to date 
on the latest information CDs and their status.

	As many of you know, Automated Archives, Inc. produced a line of 
genealogy CDs that were read with their proprietary Genealogical Research 
System (GRS) software. They produced a Master Name Index CD that 
contained all the names that appeared on any of their CDs and listed the 
CDs where they appeared.

	Automated Archives, Inc., was bought by Banner Blue in December of 
1994. In turn, Broderbund bought Banner Blue in April of 1995. There 
was a long dry spell on new CDs while they reformatted their product line 
to make it Windows based rather than DOS based. That has been 
accomplished and they have also integrated the whole series so that the 
CDs can be read from their genealogy software program called Family Tree 
Maker. The CD version of that program has been included on the CD the 
Family Finder Index, which was the old Master Name Index. In addition, 
the data from the CDs can be transferred directly from the CD to the 
genealogy database in Family Tree Maker.

	Another realignment was to put all of the census indexes for a 
census year on one CD. This is the 300 series of 11 CDs ranging from 
pre-1790 to the 1880 federal census. Also, they dropped the three Linked 
Pedigree CDs and put out the World Family Tree, Vols. 1, 2 & 3.

	A company called Infobases has put out a CD which is both MAC and 
Windows compatible, titled Ancestry Reference Library. This CD contains 
five books: The Source, Ancestry's Red Book, The Library, The Library of 
Congress and The Archives. On this CD you get the complete text of the 
original books, plus more than 350 high-resolution pictures and maps. In 
addition this CD also contains two bonus titles: A New and Complete 
Gazetteer of the United States and American Marriage Records Before 1699. 
For any genealogist with a CD drive on their computer, this CD is a must 
buy. There were quite a few sold at the Family History Fair in San 


The FOIA/PA specialist uses as a reference the "Genealogy Correspondence 
Resource Guide." This book can be ordered by you from the Immigration 
Forms Center in Wiliston, VT 05495. Ask for it by name or by its form 
number, Form M 360 (11/29/91). It will tell you where to find records on 
everything from ships manifests to head tax certificates, from federal 
court addresses to what the naturalization requirements were before 1906. 
Article by Julia Dowd in Central NY Gen Soc Tree Talks Vol. 35 #3 Sept 

CIVIL WAR PHOTOS. The U.S. Army Military History Institute in Carlisle, 
PA is attempting to collect pictures of every person who served in the 
Civil War (either side) 1861-1865. The photos need not show the soldier 
in uniform or even of that time period. The picture can show the person 
at any time of his life. If you are interested in helping with this 
ambitious project, send the photo (which will be returned after it's 
copied) or a copy you had made, to U.S. Army Military History Institute, 
Upton Hall, Carlisle Barracks, PA 17013-5008.

FIVE MOST COMMON U.S. SURNAMES. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the 
five most common surnames in the U.S. are; SMITH, JOHNSON, WILLIAMS, 
USA Today, July 31, 1995 via Santa Clara Co. GS NL, 40:12, Jan. 1996.



	Another form of gathering information, and having a nice visit with 
older family members, is by interview. DO MORE LISTENING THAN TALKING! 

	1) Using a cassette-recorder (not a boom box) or a video camera is 
the best method to record an interview. Do not use 90 or 120 minute 
tapes for your audio interviews. Use 60 minute tapes which are heavier. 
Run the tape through the recorder first then rewind. After everything is 
set up, test it and play it back. Once you have finished the tape, punch 
out the write-protect tab. Play the tape yearly but not on fast forward. 
All of this saves voices. The best thing is to transcribe the master 
tape as soon as possible. Remember to take extra tapes, batteries and 
consider an AC adapter and an extension cord. Know your equipment and 
how it works ahead of time. If you are constantly fiddling with buttons 
and such this could make your subject nervous. It also breaks thoughts 
and momentum. Label the tapes before you use them it with the date, 
location and the name of the person you are interviewing. Then at the 
beginning of the interview give your name, the date, location and with 
whom you are interviewing. 

	2) Be sure to ask your subject first if it is okay to record the 
visit. Take notes also, don't rely on your memory. By taking notes, not 
in detail, if your subject should stray from the story, with your notes 
you can bring him or her back to the point before. Also by having your 
pencil and notepad you have a backup if your equipment fails. 

	3) Be familiar with as many family names as possible. Prepare by 
making notes in advance the questions you want to ask. Write down 
stories you have heard while growing up then ask about them. I take 
family group records that have been filled out as much as possible. The 
reason for this is sometimes I find an elder that's not sure of me, what 
I am doing and if I really belong to this family. My group records give 
an indication of proof. 

	4) Try to interview the elders as soon as possible. Remember time 
isn't on your side because of their age. I have found two hours is 
about enough time for elders. But I have a 99 year old "cousin" who can 
talk all day. 

	5) When interviewing don't forget to ask about documents, 
photographs or newspaper articles etc. Do they have any you could borrow 
to have copied. If you have any photos or documents or family keepsakes, 
take them with you to use in the interview. These things can prompt 
identifications, stories and details that have been long forgotten. I 
find people gathered around the dining room table is conducive to good 
conversation. Although many times interviewing your subject alone can be 
easier. Not only to know who is speaking but much less distraction. 
With a solo interview try to make it as much like a conversation as 

	6) During the interview you will hear names and places that are 
unfamiliar to you. Be sure to ask the spelling of these words. If 
grandma talks about "Ma" is this her mother, your great-grandmother? If 
they talk about relatives with the same name try for a birth date/place 
or a sibling. Any kind of clarification. 

	7) Don't try to interrogate the interviewee. Respect their 
feelings. If you see a look on their face or tone in their voice or 
maybe their mood begins to change, back off. You want to establish a 
good rapport with them so you can come back. And don't contradict what 
they tell you. Either rephrase the question or leave it until later or 
next time. 

	8) A few more subjects to ask about are: places of residence, 
jobs, religion, schools, military service. 

	9) Ask for a follow-up interview, trying to establish a date 
before leaving. When you do this, two to four weeks is good. That will 
give you time to transcribe your tapes into notes. It would be nice to 
take along a copy for them of what you collected from the first 
interview. At this time try for some forgotten details. 

	10) Last, but most important, send a Thank You Note. By showing 
how appreciative you are may produce more information, photos and 
documents later. Remember - they didn't have to talk with you.


	Andriveau, a wealthy Frenchman, hired scribes to copy all the 
official records of births, marriages, deaths, divorces, etc., from all 
cities and districts of Alsace-Lorraine. When many of these records were 
burned or destroyed, French officials asked Andriveau to let them recopy 
his records; he refused. The LDS was allowed to microfilm the records 
and they are now available in the Salt Lake FHC Library, but not in 
Europe! CSGA Newsletter, Vol. 14, #4 (April 1996)

	In 1989 there were 1,390 Family History Centers. In 1994 there 
were 2,305. Nearly 1,200,000 microfilm orders were processed in the last 
year. Filming is currently underway in northeastern counties of Kansas. 
Leavenworth Co. deeds 1857-1940; index 1855-1908 on 92 films will be 
available soon. All the marriages for Montana have been filmed except 
for 3 counties. The State Historical Societies assessor's census of 1915 
for North Dakota on 25 films may already be available. The Sioux Valley 
Gen. Society birth & death index, 1880-1990 (90 films) and 20 films of 
Pioneer Certificates are complete. CSGA Newsletter, Vol. 14, #2 (1996)

	If you do not find the person for whom you are searching in the IGI 
do not overlook the "State Unknown" or "Country Unknown" sections. Most 
of the entries in this section have place names that were unrecognized by 
the computer, were not in the correct order, were misspelled or included 
an unusual abbreviation. CSGA Newsletter Vol. 14, #2 (February 1996

	This covers mainly people who have died since 1962. When 
searching, remember to consider siblings as well as your direct 
ancestors. The Index itself gives the birth and death dates, and the ZIP 
codes to which benefits were sent. The Index is also now available at 
the Pleasanton Library. You can obtain the Social Security application 
form of a deceased person ($7 with number and $16.50 without) from the 
Social Security Administration. This gives the birth information as well 
as the pre-marriage names of the parents. It thus has the information 
that is suppose to be on a death record but often is not. Jim Scofield, 
L-AGS, April, 1996

	The International Genealogical Index (IGI) 1994 Update, released in 
July 1995, is different from previous editions. It is a separate set of 
seven CD-ROM disks known as the "1994 Addendum." If you have previously 
searched the 1993 edition of the IGI, you will only need to search the 
1994 Addendum, as no new names have been added to the main file. For new 
searches it is recommended that you examine both the Main file and the 
Addendum because even wen entries found may be for the same name, the 
records will be from different sources.

	The Addendum continues the changes which began in previous editions 
of the IGI. Both the 1993 edition and the Addendum bring together many 
references to the same person, each leading to a different source 
reference. Of the 42 million records in the Addendum, over 5 million are 
extracted records taken directly from primary sources, and the remaining 
37 million are "patron submitted." 

	The regions of Wales, Asia, Africa and World MISC cannot be 
accessed in the 1993 edition now, only in the Addendum. This means you 
need only search the Addendum for names in those areas. Thousands of 
names in the 1993 edition of World Miscellaneous Region were evaluated by 
computer and moved to the correct geographical region. However, in the 
half-million names still there, records can often be identified by the 
human eye. from Elizabeth Nichols, "International Genealogical Index 
(IGI) Updated by Addendum - Pat 1," FGS Forum, 7:3, pp 5-8.

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